Graves’ disease is a deficiency of the immune system that leads to overproduction of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism). Although a variety of conditions can contribute to hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease is a common cause.

What is Graves disease? 

Graves’ disease is a condition of autoimmune. It allows the thyroid gland to produce too much of the body’s thyroid hormone. This disease is referred to as hyperthyroidism. Graves syndrome is one of the most prevalent types of hyperthyroidism.

Your immune system produces antibodies identified as thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves’ disease. Such antibodies are then bound to stable thyroid cells. They will lead the thyroid to release too much of a thyroid hormone.

Thyroid hormones affect certain parts of the body. This may include the role of your nervous system, brain growth, body temperature, and other essential elements.

Hyperthyroidism can induce weight loss, anxiety, jitteriness, irritability, depression, and mental or physical exhaustion if left untreated.

Thyroid hormones affect all of the body’s processes, so the signs and symptoms of Graves’ disease can be widespread. While Graves disease can affect everyone, it is more prevalent among women and people younger than 40 years of age.

The main aim of therapy is to decrease the number of thyroid hormones released by the body and to reduce the severity of symptoms.

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Symptoms of Graves Disease: 

  • Hand tremor
  • Loss in weight
  • Quick heart rate (tachycardia)
  • Intolerance for hot temperatures
  • fatigue
  • nervousness and anxiety
  • Irritation
  • Muscular weakness
  • Goitre’s (swelling in the thyroid gland)
  • Frequent bowel movements 
  • Difficulty to sleep

A small number of people with Graves’ disease will report reddened, thickened skin around the shiny patch. This is a disease called the dermopathy of Graves.

Another symptom that you may encounter is known as Graves’ ophthalmopathy. This happens when your eyes may appear to be swollen as a result of the retraction of your eyelids. When this occurs, your eyes can begin to bulge out of your eye sockets.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders reports that 30 percent of individuals who experience Graves’ disease may have moderate Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Graves may have serious ophthalmopathy of up to 5%.

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What causes Graves Disease? 

In autoimmune diseases such as Graves’ disease, the immune system is beginning to fight against healthy tissues and cells in the body. Your immune system normally creates proteins known as antibodies to battle foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria.

These antibodies are developed specifically to attack a particular invader. In Graves disease, the immune system wrongly generates antibodies named thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins that attack your own healthy thyroid cells.

While researchers know that people will inherit the capacity to produce antibodies to their healthy cells, they have no means of knowing what causes Graves’ disease or who will acquire it.

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Who’s at risk of getting Graves Disease? 

Experts agree that these factors will impact the risk of contracting Graves’ disease:

  • Ancestry: Since the family history of Graves disease is a recognized risk factor, there is likely to be a gene or gene that can make a person more vulnerable to the condition.
  • Stress: Stressful life experiences or illnesses may catalyze for the onset of Graves’ disease in people who have genes that raise their risk.
  • Age: Graves’ disease typically occurs in individuals younger than 40 years of age.
  • Sex (Gender): Women are far more likely than men to develop Graves’ disease.

The disorder is usually diagnosed in individuals younger than 40 years of age. Your chance also rises dramatically if members of your family have Graves’ disease. 

Another autoimmune disease even raises the chances of getting Grave’s disease. Examples among those autoimmune disorders include rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and Crohn’s disease.

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How is it diagnosed? 

Your doctor might ask for laboratory tests if you are suspected of having Graves’ disease. If anyone in your family has had Graves’ disease, your doctor will be able to narrow down the condition depending on your medical records and physical examination.

This will also have to be checked by thyroid blood testing. A doctor who specializes in hormone-related diseases, known as an endocrinologist, can take care of your tests and diagnosis.

Any of the following assessments can also be ordered by your doctor:

  • Blood testing
  • Ultrasound of the thyroid
  • Test of radioactive iodine uptake
  • Test of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Test for thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI)

The combined findings can help your doctor figure out whether you have Graves’ disease or some other form of thyroid disorder.

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Treatment of Graves Disease

There are three alternative treatments ready for people with Graves’ disease. Your doctor can recommend that you use one or more of these options to treat your condition.

  1. Antithyroid drugs

Antithyroid medications, such as propylthiouracil or methimazole, can be recommended. Beta-blockers can also be used to help mitigate the effects of your symptoms before other medications tend to function.

  1. Radioiodine therapy

Radioactive iodine treatment is one of the most effective treatments for Graves disease. You ought to take doses of radioactive iodine-131 for this treatment.

This typically means swallowing tiny doses in the shape of a tablet. Your doctor will speak to you about the steps you can take for this treatment.

  1. Operation of the thyroid

While thyroid surgery is an alternative, it is used less frequently than not. Your doctor may prescribe surgery if prior therapies have been performed properly or if thyroid cancer is suspected, but thyroid cancer is rare in the Graves disease setting.

If surgery is required, the doctor will remove the whole thyroid gland (total thyroidectomy) to reduce the possibility of a return to hyperthyroidism. Total thyroidectomy is the quality of treatment for patients with Graves disease.

If you want surgery, you will require thyroid hormone replacement therapy continuously. Speak to the doctor about the benefits and disadvantages of various treatment choices.

When to see the doctor?

A variety of medical conditions can cause signs and symptoms associated with Graves’ disease. See the doctor if you have any possible issues with Graves’ disease to get a timely and correct diagnosis. Get emergency treatment if you have signs and symptoms linked to the heart, such as a fast or erratic pulse, or if you have a vision problem.