A subset of compounds that can improve brain output is Nootropics, or “smart drugs.” Often they’re called cognition enhancers or drugs that improve memory.

Nootropic prescription group of drugs that have stimulant effects. The effects of psychiatric disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, or Alzheimer’s syndrome may be counteracted.

Nootropics are often called nonprescription chemicals that may increase brain efficiency or attention, such as caffeine and creatine. They may not cure disorders, but they can affect perception, memory, or other mental functions in any way.

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Prescription Nootropics

Nootropic medication can be administered by a doctor to treat a medical condition. Usually, the medication is a form of stimulant that may help relieve ADHD, narcolepsy, dementia, or a related disorder, such as amphetamine.

  • Nootropic pharmaceutical products include:
  • Modafinil (Provigil), a stimulant that treats narcolepsy’s sudden drowsiness,
  • Adderall containing amphetamine for the treatment of ADHD
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin), a stimulant that can treat narcolepsy and ADHD effects,
  • Memantine (Axura), which deals with Alzheimer’s disease symptoms,

Although these may be useful in treating individual medical problems, without a prescription, a person should not take them.

They bring problems of side effects and interactions, just like any prescription drug, and a person can only take them under the supervision of a doctor.

  • Popular side effects of nootropic prescription drugs include:
  • Elevated Blood Pressure
  • Speedy Heart Rate
  • Insomnia and other disruptions to sleep
  • Sight Trouble
  • Addiction
  • Addiction

Any research shows that there is a greater chance of impulsive actions, such as unsafe sexual activities, among persons who use prescribed nootropics to boost brain function.

To control the side effects and monitor their condition, healthcare providers should work directly with patients taking prescribed nootropics.

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Over-the-counter nootropics

The word “nootropic” may also apply to behavioral performance-boosting natural or synthetic supplements. Nootropics are discussed in the following sections and do not require a prescription.

  1. Caffeine

Owing to their stimulant effects, many individuals drink drinks that contain caffeine, such as coffee or tea. Studies show that, in small doses, caffeine is healthy for most users.

It might be a good way to improve mental concentration by enjoying a daily cup of coffee or tea. Extreme levels of caffeine, though, may not be secure.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises that no more than 400 milligrams (mg) of caffeine a day be taken by individuals. This is the number of 4-5 coffee cups.

Caffeine pills and powders can comprise the stimulant in exceptionally high quantities. Taking them will lead to a caffeine overdose in rare cases, even death.

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  1. L-theanine

The amino acid that appears in black and green teas is L-theanine. People can take supplements with l-theanine as well.

A 2016 study stated that alpha waves in the brain could be enhanced by l-theanine. Alpha waves may lead to a mental state that is calm and alert.

When combined with caffeine, l-theanine can function well. This mixture helps to improve cognitive efficiency and alertness, some research shows. The FDA’s caffeine recommendations should be kept in mind by those wanting to consume l-theanine in tea.

For l-theanine, there are no dosage recommendations, but certain supplements prescribe that 100-400 mg be taken every day.

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  1. Omega-3 fatty acids

Being the most possibly the best and well-studied mental enhancers are omega-3 fatty acids.  In fatty fish and fish oil supplements these polyunsaturated fats are available. For brain health, this form of fat is essential, and an individual must get it from their diet. 

Omega-3s help construct membranes, like neurons, across the cells of the body. To rebuild and renew brain cells, these fats are essential.

In a 2015 study, omega-3 fatty acids were found to guard against brain aging. Other research has concluded that omega-3s are important for the functioning of the brain and nervous system.

A broad study, however, showed “no profit for cognitive function among cognitively healthy elderly people with omega-3 [polyunsaturated fatty acids] supplementation.” The authors propose more long-term research.

In different ways, including fish oil, krill oil, and algal oil, a person may get omega-3 supplements.

When an individual takes them as prescribed, these supplements carry a low risk of side effects, although they may interfere with medicines that influence blood clotting. Before taking them, ask a practitioner.

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  1. Racetams

Racetams are synthetic substances that are capable of altering brain neurotransmitters. These racetams with nootropic agents include:

  • piracetam
  • Pramiracetam 
  • phenylpiracetam
  • Aniracetam

A research performed on rats indicates that neuroprotective effects can occur with piracetam.

One analysis notes that “Some of the research indicated that piracetam may have some advantage, but, overall, the evidence is not consistent or positive enough to support its use for dementia or cognitive impairment.” Further testing would be required to validate this.

For racetams, there is no fixed-dose, so a person should follow guidance and contact a healthcare provider. Overall, no negative impacts of taking racetams as guided have been reported in studies.

  1. Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a native Chinese, Japanese, and Korean tree. As a herbal remedy, its leaves are usable.

A 2016 study showed that ginkgo Biloba is “potentially beneficial” for brain function enhancement, although further studies would be needed to validate this.

According to one study, which recorded the results happening in people who have taken more than 200 mg a day for at least 5 months, Ginkgo Biloba may help with dementia symptoms.

The authors of the study, nevertheless, note that further research is required. And, Ginkgo Biloba may not be the most secure or efficient alternative for prescription nootropics available.

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  1. Creatine

Creatine, which is a key component of protein, is an amino acid. Among athletes, this supplement is common because it can help improve the performance of the workout. It may have a certain impact on mental abilities as well.

A 2018 study showed that the application of creatine tends to aid in short-term memory and thought. It is uncertain if it assists the brain in other respects.

Creatine supplementation of up to 30 grams a day is stated by the International Society of Sports Nutrition to be safe for healthy citizens to seek for 5 years.

Another 2018 study states that there has been little research on whether this supplement for young athletes is safe and reliable.


Nootropics and smart drugs refer to mental function-enhancing plant, synthetic and pharmaceutical medicines. Wise opioid medications, such as Adderall and Ritalin, have the most effective and most important effects on memory and concentration.

There are readily available synthetic nootropic supplements such as Noopept and piracetam, but there is a lack of studies on their efficacy in healthy adults.

In alternative medicine, certain natural nootropics are used, but their effects are usually subtler and slower-acting. Sometimes they are taken in conjunction to improve their potency.

In today’s culture, the use of nootropics and smart drugs is growing, but further study is needed to better understand nootropics’ side effects and benefits.